In order to clarify the present situation and problem of tongue coating removal in administering tongue coating removal to subjects with thick tongue coating adhering to their tongues to appropriately improve tongue functions, prevent aspiration pneumonia, and maintain their health as a whole, literature for all the years up to March, 2015 was examined. ICHUSHI and CiNii were used as a search engine, and “tongue care,” “tongue brush,” and “tongue cleaning” were used as keywords. Literature of 19 qualified studies from the search results was analyzed. The results revealed that the most frequently used tongue cleaning tool was a tongue brush. Regarding tongue coating removal methods, using a scraping procedure to scrape in one direction from the back of the tongue anteriorly was most common, but the scraping pressure and the number of scrapes performed varied depending on the literature. Regarding the method of evaluation of tongue coating removal effectiveness, the state of the tongue coating was the most common evaluation focus, but all evaluation points were used in combination with others, and most combinations were of halitosis and bacterial count. The results of the present literature review do not yet clarify what the best tool is for how to effectively remove tongue coating, suggesting the possibility for future research. Moreover, there is a necessity to investigate effective scraping pressure for removal of tongue coating without causing discomfort to subjects, and to investigate the number of scrapings and the effectiveness of the tongue cleaning tool used. In addition, the results suggest that the evaluation method for effectiveness in the removal of tongue coating was visually dependent and that, in order to assess this effectiveness more objectively, it is necessary to select a combination of assessment points such as the change in number of bacteria, state of halitosis, etc.
The purpose of this research is to systematically organize the decision factors causing the nurses to study abroad and the results of their experiences. We conducted semistructured interviews with eight nurses who had studied nursing abroad, and the obtained data were analyzed qualitatively and inductively. The results showed that they started from “formation of the grounds leading to a desire to go abroad,” and they found “a direct opportunity and intention to go and study abroad.” Then, to concretely prepare for overseas study, they followed the steps of “laying the groundwork for studying abroad,” “trying to practically improve the language skills” and “choosing the destination of overseas study.” While studying abroad, they had the experiences of “recognizing the differences in culture and nursing practice” and “reviewing the circumstances in Japan,” and at the same time, they “actually understood the importance of language skills after leaving Japan” and they “really felt difficulties while staying overseas.” After returning to Japan, “?‘new way of life’ they learned overseas” lead them to “upgrade their career.” The results suggested that to encourage the nurses to study abroad would contribute toward improving the quality in nursing and leading to effective development of the global human resources.
The aim of this study was to identify health examination items that affect classification of children in need of follow-up (CNF) at 18-month old health checkup. Subjects were 1,270 children and classified into 4 groups : 643 normal children (50.6%), 38 children who received instant guidance (3.0%), 524 CNF (42.0%), and 55 children requiring scrutiny/treatment or under medical treatment (4.4%).
This study revealed that 15 examination items were associated with comprehensive decision for CNF : 2 items of nurturing circumstances (e.g., childcare support), 3 of growth and development (walking, pointing, and height), 4 of lifestyle (e.g., bedtime and snack routine), 2 of anxiety (speech delay and hypersensitivity), and 4 observational items (examination with shape puzzle, rotated shape puzzle, building block, and pointing in a picture book). These 15 items may be important to avoid overlooking CNF.
Our results indicate that, at 18-month old health checkup, public health nurses take cognizance of not only suspected cases of developmental disorders, but all other aspects involved in nurturing circumstances. Our findings may contribute to maternal and child health system consistent with regional conditions.
[Purpose] This study aimed to reveal the nursing students’ thoughts and feelings in the nursing care and the relations of their thoughts and feelings to congruence, and derive educational suggestions for the formation of good helping-relationship with patients from the findings.
[Methods] Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 86 nursing students, asking them about their thoughts and feelings during the nursing care, and presence or absence of congruence.
[Results] Strong significant differences were found in the relations of their thoughts and feelings to congruence. Their feelings not developing a state of congruence were [positive self-feelings], [negative self-feelings], [positive feelings toward cared-for] and [negative feelings toward cared-for]. On the other hand, their thoughts leading to the state of congruence were classified into [thoughts of reflecting on one’s own caring skill], [thoughts of reflecting on one’s own attentiveness], [thoughts of recognizing the condition for cared-for] and [thoughts of improving the condition of cared-for].
[Considerations] In the nursing care practice, nursing students’ thoughts were more likely to develop the state of congruence than their feelings. The students’ thoughts developing the state of congruence and their feelings not developing the state of congruence presented the characteristics relevant to the formation of a good helping-relationship in the nursing care.
The research aimed to clarify the relationship between fathers and mothers for a year from the birth of their children from the mothers’ perspectives. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with 22 mothers, who were within one year from childbirth, and analyzed the results, using M-GTA. The mothers felt <the limitation of their role in life> due to <their lives being prioritized by child-raising>. The mothers after childbirth thought they were 【conducting a child-orientated life】, whereas they deemed the fathers were 【conducting a self-centered life】. They also deemed the fathers were <passive> and felt <indignant about the fathers’ attitude towards the children>. The mothers had tried to persuade the fathers to be 【ideal fathers】 for them. The mothers’ approaches to getting the fathers to <help with house work and child-raising> and to <raise awareness of being fathers> could be defined as 【a relationship where the mother is leading the father】. The mothers became conscious about <(seeking) a stable marital relationship> and eventually deemed the fathers to be <building a life together> rather than being <passive> fathers. As a result, it has become clear that the relationship between father and mother changes from a mother-leading type to a cooperative type.
The purpose of this study was to provide disaster preparedness education to individuals with mental illness as participants, verify the effectiveness of such education provided by nurses aiming to transfer knowledge on protecting one’s life in the event of a natural disaster, and improving the participants’ perception about disaster preparedness.
Lecture on disaster preparedness was delivered 5 times for about 30 minutes as part of an activity conducted in small groups of about 7 patients each, with a total of 22 patients who were hospitalized in the psychiatric ward. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) short form was used to assess the level of acceptance of the lecture by each participant by comparing the shift in mood and psychological distress before and after the intervention. Moreover, the capability of coping with stress was also compared using Lazarus Type Stress Coping Inventory (SCI). As a result of comparative analysis of the six dimensions of mood swings using the POMS-short form, no significant differences were observed in mood swings prior to the intervention. However, the scores on ‘tension or anxiety’ and ‘depression or dejection’ were significantly lower after the intervention. With respect to changes in stress coping, although no significant differences were observed before and after the intervention, the average scores on ‘planned problem solving’ and ‘seeking social support’ were found to be higher after the intervention.
The results of the study suggest that an educational intervention programme on natural disaster preparedness for individuals with mental illness is likely to reduce their ‘tension or anxiety’ and ‘depression or dejection’ and also improve their capability to cope with stress.
Tea leaves are produced all over the world, and their production areas are labeled and sold as brands. It has been recognized that it is effective to measure the concentration of inorganic elements in tea leaves as a scientific and objective discrimination method to support the origin of tea leaves. Several statistical analyzes using IBM SPSS (version 22) were performed on the inorganic element content of tea leaves with clear production area, and a statistical analysis method effective for discrimination of origin was studied. Sodium, aluminum, iron, magnesium and calcium contents were subjected to statistical analysis using 135 samples of Darjeeling tea, 32 samples of Yakushima tea leaves, 47 samples of Japanese tea leaves other than Yakushima and 10 samples of Sri Lankan tea leaves. We performed principal component analysis, discriminant analysis, decision tree analysis on the discrimination of the four groups of Darjeeling, Yakushima, Japan other than Yakushima and Sri Lanka as well as the discrimination of the two groups of Darjeeling and other production areas. As a result, since the number of data of each group is greatly different, discrimination analysis was found to be the most accurate for the production area discrimination. In addition, it was suggested that a conclusion should be made by using a plurality of analysis methods in combination for accurate determination.
This study aimed to identify the current status of and issues regarding accuracy management of population-based screening for gastric cancer using process indicators. Data on process indicators for population-based screening during 2005-2013 were obtained from reports of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan. The process indicators included the following : recall rate for further detailed examination, positive predictive value, percentage of individuals whose further detailed examination status was unknown, and percentage of individuals who did not undergo further detailed examination. To examine longitudinal trends, changes in each process indicator between 2005 and 2013 were analyzed by linear approximation. Our results demonstrated a decreasing trend in the recall rate and an increasing trend in the positive predictive value, indicating improved accuracy of screening. However, the presence of individuals for whom further detailed examination was not performed or for whom the examination status was unknown indicated a considerable scope for potentially missed diagnoses of gastric cancer. To promote early detection and treatment of gastric cancer, it is important for local government to monitor process indicators and strengthen call/recall systems for continuously performing further examinations.
Recently, the role of the intestinal environment in complaints such as constipation and diarrhea has attracted attention. To improve the intestinal environment, various fermented foods and probiotic drinks are routinely marketed as probiotics in Japan. In particular, “Aspergillus oryzae” has been used for fermentation to make sake, miso and soy sauce for more than a thousand years in Japan. Although numerous studies on the improvement of food by fermentation have been performed, fewer studies on the improvement of the human intestine have been reported. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of foods containing Aspergillus oryzae on the number of intestinal bacteria and the defecation status. The subjects were 3 healthy adults from 30’s to 50’s. The subjects were asked to ingest amazake (125mL) or Raw-SHIOKOJI (7.5g) for 14 days. The feces of the subjects were collected on days 0, 7, 14 and 35. The number of the total bacteria and the number of Bifidobacterium (beneficial bacteria), Enterobacteriaceae (opportunistic bacteria) and Clostridium perfringens (harmful bacteria) in the feces were counted. A questionnaire on defecation was also completed. The subjects were also questioned regarding defecation frequency and composition. No significant change in the number of bacteria in the feces was seen according to the intake of foods containing Aspergillus oryzae during the study period. However, the defecation frequency of the subjects increased after the intake of foods containing Aspergillus oryzae. Some subjects stated that defecation became easier and that the form of their stools improved. The present study suggests that foods containing Aspergillus oryzae improve defecation and have beneficial effects on the intestinal environment in humans.
This study aimed to facilitate the design of a useful meal plan. Samples were rice (brown rice and polished rice) as staple foods and four types of meats (bovine, pig, chicken thigh, and chicken breast). The rice was cooked, while the meat was boiled or baked in a block. The hardness of each sample was determined through the rupture measurement and compared among samples, and the association between hardness and masticatory muscle activity was examined. Consequently, the cooked brown rice had a 1.5-fold greater breaking load than the cooked polished rice, affecting the number of mastication cycles and total muscle activity. Regarding the rupture characteristics of meat after boiling, beef and pork had a similar breaking load. As for chicken, breast had a significantly greater breaking load than chicken thigh (?p<0.05). Furthermore, after baking, beef displayed a significantly greater breaking value than pork (?p<0.001), and the braking value of chicken breast was significantly larger than that of chicken thigh (?p<0.01). However, the tendency of the fracture load of meat was not clearly reflected through masticatory muscle activity. To determine a clear association, we need to increase the number of subjects.