Background: Nursing arts required at school have not been fully studied for a long time, although they differ from those used by nurses at medical institutions and facilities. For this reason, the details of school nursing arts that are desirable to teach in Yogo teacher training education are not yet clear.
Objective: This study proposed a comprehensive taxonomy of the school nursing arts.
Methods: 1.Step 1: Development of a taxonomy of school nursing arts (draft) The framework (draft) of pediatric nursing arts was created on the basis of data including standards of the Japanese national licensure examination for nurses, and the validity was examined by five researchers involved in basic nursing education. Next, the literature on school nursing was compared with this framework (draft), and the taxonomy of school nursing arts (draft) was created, excluding medical practice. The necessity of the content was examined by five researchers involved in Yogo teaching education .2.Step 2: Examination of the validity of a taxonomy of school nursing arts (draft) In February 2018, we sent questionnaires to Yogo teaching researchers across the country and asked a researcher from each school to respond. The contents of the survey included the recognition of the necessity of each school nursing art, the implementation of education at each school, and the attributes of the researchers. First, we examined whether there was a difference in recognition of the necessity of each school nursing arts according to the training background. Next, based on the consent rate of the Delphi method, we examined the necessity of the school nursing arts with a low consent rate regarding the necessity of school nursing arts through the information presented in extant literature or prevailing expert discussions, and designed the final version of the taxonomy.
Results: In the first step, 4 major items (I. Basic School Nursing Arts, II. School Nursing Arts to Keep Safety and Comfort of Children, III. School Nursing Arts of Daily Life Support, and IV. School Nursing Arts of Health Support), 19 middle items, 38 sub-items, and 211 details were generated. In the second step, responses were obtained from 47 Yogo teaching researchers (response rate 34.6%). As a result of examining the necessity of school nursing arts by training background (nursing and non-nursing), there was no significant difference. In each sub-item, 15 items received moderate consent, 12 items received low consent, and 1 item received a consent rate of less than 50%. Eventually, 2 items were excluded and 8 were added, along with the addition of 1 middle item, 1 sub-item, and 6 details, thereby bringing the total items generated to, 4 major items, 20 middle items, 39 sub-items, and 215 details.
Conclusion: In this study, we extracted items related to school nursing arts based on extant studies and lit-erature on school nursing, and examined the necessity based on the opinions of Yogo teaching researchers. This taxonomy of school nursing arts is one of the evidence data for improving Yogo teacher training education and Yogo teacher training.
Background: In Japan, the sales of energy drinks (ED) are growing rapidly. This has led to concerns that consumption of ED could have a negative health impact for individuals, including children.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to confirm the intake of ED, the characteristics of consumers' physical symptoms/behaviors, and the perception of ED based on the results of a questionnaire survey for school children.
Methods: The subjects were 5,984 children from 5th grade of elementary schools to 3rd grade of high school in 16 schools (5 elementary schools, 6 junior high schools, 5 high schools) at 6 rural and metropolitan Japanese prefectures. All investigations were conducted from May 2018 to March 2019. The questionnaire used in this study gathered information regarding ED intake, physical symptoms/behaviors, and the perception of ED.
Results: The main results in this study were as follows. 1) Older students were more consume ED than younger students, and boys were more than girls to consume ED (elementary school: 45.5% boys, 27.9% girls, junior high school: 58.0% boys, 32.8% girls, and high school: 67.6% boys, 45.4% girls). 2) The analysis of the relationship between the ED intake frequency and physical symptoms indicated that the complaints of physical symptoms such as ‘headache (OR=1.573, 95% CI=1.281-1.931),' ‘stomachache (OR=1.545, 95% CI=1.224-1.949),' ‘appetite loss (OR=1.629, 95% CI=1.293-2.053),' ‘nausea (OR=1.667, 95% CI=1.251-2.222),' ‘tiredness (OR=1.285, 95% CI=1.023-1.614),' ‘lethargy (OR=1.382, 95% CI=1.120-1.706),' ‘dizziness (OR=1.369, 95% CI=1.108-1.692),' ‘fogginess (OR=1.621, 95% CI=1.231-2.134),' ‘cardiac pain (OR=1.537, 95% CI=1.168-2.021)' and ‘malaise (OR=1.557, 95% CI=1.267-1.915)' were higher in the group who consumed ED habitually (more than once a week). Similarly, in the analysis of the relation between the ED intake frequency and behaviors, ‘late bedtime (OR=1.338, 95% CI=1.092-1.640),' ‘bad sleep onset (OR=1.649, 95% CI=1.311-2.074),' ‘wake after sleep onset (OR=2.056, 95% CI=1.528-2.766)' and ‘lack of breakfast (OR=3.453, 95% CI=2.546-4.684)' were also higher in the habitual ED intake group. 3) The four factors, ‘vitality', ‘vogue,' ‘ineptness' and ‘distrust' were extracted regarding students' perception of ED held by children. Additionally, it was confirmed that the habitual ED intake group had higher factor scores of ‘vitality' and ‘vogue,' while their factor scores of ‘ineptness' and ‘distrust' were also significantly lower.
Conclusion: In this study, we were able to show the real state of ED intake, the characteristics of consumers' physical symptoms/behaviors, and the perception of ED. Therefore, social countermeasures were considered necessary.
Background: Self-Esteem is a crucial characteristic to enhance mental health and adaptive behaviors at schools. One of the most famous scales to measure self-esteem is the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). However, recent studies have revealed that the RSES for adults measures both adaptive and nonadaptive aspects of self-esteem. Therefore, the difficulties of utilizing the RSES in clinical and educational intervention research are indicated. On the other hand, there is little research for children to examine if the RSES includes both adaptive and nonadaptive self-esteem.
Objective: The main purpose of current study is examining whether the RSES for children measures adaptive and nonadaptive self-esteem.
Methods: Participants were 581 children from 4th to 6th grades and 20 homeroom teachers in elementary schools. The RSES for Children (RSES-C) that includes 10 items was developed for this study, considering the content validity and comprehensibility for children. The results were compared between three groups (adaptive and nonadaptive high self-esteem, and low SE) nominated by the homeroom teachers.
Results:The main results were as follows: 1) The results of factor analyses showed that the RSES-C consists of one factor with eight items, in which item number 2 and 8 were excluded due to low factor loadings. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for internal consistency illustrated adequate levels of scores (overall: α=.81, males: α=.80, females: α=.82). 2) Gender difference and grade difference were examined through two-way analysis of variance (grade and sex). The results revealed that there were no significant main effects with in interaction effect. 3) The scores in the groups of adaptive and nonadaptive self-esteem were not different and higher than the low self-esteem group. This finding suggested that what the children version measures is similar to what the adult one does.
Conclusion: Through these results, it was suggested that the RSES-C measures both adaptive and nonadaptive self-esteem, like the adult version of the RSES. The RSES-C needs to be carefully utilized in assessing adaptive self-esteem for the evaluation of intervention programs at schools.